The pituitary gland works hard to keep you healthy, doing everything from
ensuring proper bone and muscle growth to helping nursing mothers produce
milk for their babies. Its functionality is even more remarkable when
you consider the gland is the size of a pea.
"The pituitary is commonly referred to as the 'master' gland
because it does so many important jobs in the body," says
Karen Frankwich, MD, a board-certified endocrinologist at
Mission Hospital. "Not only does the pituitary make its own hormones, but it also
triggers hormone production in other glands. The pituitary is aided in
its job by the hypothalamus. This part of the brain is situated above
the pituitary, and sends messages to the gland on when to release or stimulate
production of necessary hormones."
These hormones include:
- Growth hormone, for healthy bone and muscle mass
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone, which signals the thyroid to produce its hormones
that govern metabolism and the body's nervous system, among others
- Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones for healthy reproductive
systems (including ovarian egg development in women and sperm formation
in men, as well as estrogen and testosterone production)
- Prolactin, for breast milk production in nursing mothers
- Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), which prompts the adrenal glands to produce
the stress hormone cortisol. The proper amount of cortisol helps the body
adapt to stressful situations by affecting the immune and nervous systems,
blood sugar levels, blood pressure and metabolism.
- Antidiuretic (ADH), which helps the kidneys control urine levels
- Oxytocin, which can stimulate labor in pregnant women
The work of the pituitary gland can be affected by non-cancerous tumors
called adenomas. "These tumors can affect hormone production, so
you have too little or too much of a certain hormone," Dr. Frankwich
says. "Larger tumors that are more than 1 centimeter, called macroadenomas,
can also put pressure on the area surrounding the gland, which can lead
to vision problems and headaches. Because symptoms can vary depending
on the hormone that is affected by a tumor, or sometimes there are no
symptoms, adenomas can be difficult to pinpoint. General symptoms can
include nausea, weight loss or gain, sluggishness or weakness, and changes
in menstruation for women and sex drive for men."
If there's a suspected tumor, a doctor will usually run tests on a
patient's blood and urine, and possibly order a brain-imaging scan.
An endocrinologist can help guide a patient on the best course of treatment,
which could consist of surgery, medication, radiation therapy or careful
monitoring of the tumor if it hasn't caused major disruption.
"The pituitary gland is integral to a healthy, well-functioning body
in so many ways," Dr. Frankwich says. "It may not be a major
organ you think about much, but it's important to know how it works,
and how it touches on so many aspects of your health."
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